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santé et pratique du canoë-kayak


Baker SJ, King N : Lactic acid recovery profiles following exhaustive arm exercise on a canoeing ergometer. Br J Sports Med 1991 Sep;25(3):165-167
Sport Health and Physical Education, University College of North Wales, Bangor,UK.
In this study lactate removal rates were monitored in ten subjects during a 30-min recovery period following exhaustive arm exercise. Each subject experienced three recovery regimens on different occasions in random order. One recovery period consisted of supine rest while the other two were active, one incorporating low intensity arm exercise and the other consisting of low intensity leg exercise. Lactate clearance rates showed a significant difference between the recovery regimens, and a posteriori test indicated a significant difference between leg exercise and arm exercise in the recovery period and also between leg exercise and rest. There was no significant difference in lactate clearance between arm exercise and rest in the recovery period.
Publication Types: Clinical trial Randomized controlled trial
MEDLINE - PMID: 1777788, UI: 92136075

Baker SJ, Hardy L : Effects of high intensity canoeing training on fibre area and fibre type in the latissimus dorsi muscle. Br J Sports Med 1989 Mar;23(1):23-26
Physical Education Department, University College of North Wales.
A high intensity short duration exercise training programme was undertaken by nine subjects on three occasions each week for nine weeks. Muscle samples from the latissimus dorsi were taken by needle biopsy, at rest, before and after training. The results revealed that there was no change in either Type I or Type II muscle fibre distribution following training. Type I fibre area did not alter significantly as a result of the training stress. Mean cross-sectional area of Type II fibres was 82 per cent greater post-training than pre-training.
MEDLINE - PMID: 2730995, UI: 89274719

Billat V, Faina M, Sardella F, Marini C, Fanton F, Lupo S, Faccini P, de Angelis M, Koralsztein JP, Dalmonte A : A comparison of time to exhaustion at VO2 max in elite cyclists, kayak paddlers, swimmers and runners. Ergonomics 1996 Feb;39(2):267-277
Laboratoire STAPS, Université Paris XII, Creteil, France.
A recent study has shown the reproducibility of time to exhaustion (time limit:tlim) at the lowest velocity that elicits the maximal oxygen consumption (vVO2 max). The same study found an inverse relationship between this time to exhaustion at vVO2 max and vVO2 max among 38 elite long-distance runners (Billat et al. 1994b). The purpose of the present study was to compare the time to exhaustion at the power output (or velocity) at VO2 max for different values of VO2 max, depending on the type of exercise and not only on the aerobic capacity. The time of exhaustion at vVO2 max (tlim) has been measured among 41 elite (national level) sportsmen: 9 cyclists, 9 kayak paddlers, 9 swimmers and 14 runners using specific ergometers. Velocity or power at VO2 max (vVO2 max) was determined by continuous incremental testing. This protocol had steps of 2 min and increments of 50 W, 30 W, 0.05 m s-1 and 2 km-1 for cyclists, kayak paddlers, swimmers and runners, respectively. One week later, tlim was determined under the same conditions. After a warm-up of 10 min at 60% of their vVO2 max, subjects were concluded (in less than 45 s) to their vVO2 max and then had to sustain it as long as possible until exhaustion. Mean values of vVO2 max and tlim were respectively equal to 419 +/- 49 W (tlim = 222 +/- 91 s), 239 +/- 56 W (tlim = 376 +/- 134 s), 1.46 +/- 0.09 m s-1 (tlim = 287 +/- 160 s) and 22.4 +/- 0.8 km h-1 (tlim = 321 +/- 84 s), for cyclists, kayak paddlers, swimmers and runners. Time to exhaustion at vVO2 max was only significantly different between cycling and kayaking (ANOVA test, p < 0.05). Otherwise, VO2 max (expressed in ml min-1 kg-1) was significantly different between all sports except between cycling and running (p < 0.05). In this study, time to exhaustion at vVO2 max was also inversely related to VO2 max for the entire group of elite sportsmen (r = -0.320, p < 0.05, n = 41). The inverse relationship between VO2 max and tlim at vVO2 max has to be explained, it seems that tlim depends on VO2 max regardless of the type of exercise undertaken.
MEDLINE - PMID: 8851531, UI: 97004220

Billat LV, Koralsztein JP : Significance of the velocity at VO2max and time to exhaustion at this velocity. Sports Med 1996 Aug;22(2):90-108
Laboratoire STAPS, University of Paris 12, Creteil, France.
In 1923, Hill and Lupton pointed out that for Hill himself, 'the rate of oxygenintake due to exercise increases as speed increases, reaching a maximum for the speeds beyond about 256 m/min. At this particular speed, for which no further increases in O2 intake can occur, the heart, lungs, circulation, and the diffusion of oxygen to the active muscle-fibres have attained their maximum activity. At higher speeds the requirement of the body for oxygen is far higher but cannot be satisfied, and the oxygen debt continuously increases'. In 1975,this minimal velocity which elicits maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) was called'critical speed' and was used to measure the maximal aerobic capacity (maxEox), i.e. the total oxygen consumed at VO2max. This should not be confusedwith the term 'critical power' which is closes to the power output at the'lactate threshold'. In 1984, the term 'velocity at VO2max' and the abbreviation 'vVO2max' was introduced. It was reported that vVO2max is a useful variable that combines VO2max and economy into a single factor which can identify aerobic differences between various runners or categories of runners.vVO2max explained individual differences in performance that VO2max or running economy alone did not. Following that, the concept of a maximal aerobic running velocity (Vamax in m/sec) was formulated. This was a running velocity at whichVO2max occurred and was calculated as the ratio between VO2max (ml/kg/min) minus oxygen consumption at rest, and the energy cost of running (ml/kg/sec).There are many ways to determine the velocity associated with VO2max making it difficult to compare maintenance times. In fact, the time to exhaustion (tlim) at vVO2max is reproducible in an individual, however, there is a great variability among individuals with a low coefficient of variation for vVO2max.For an average value of about 6 minutes, the coefficient of variation is about 25%. It seems that the lactate threshold which is correlated with the tlim at vVO2max can explain this difference among individuals, the role of the anaerobic contribution being significant. An inverse relationship has been found between tlim at vVO2max and VO2max, and a positive one between vVO2max and the velocity at the lactate threshold expressed as a fraction of vVO2max.These results are similar for different sports (e.g. running, cycling,kayaking, swimming). It seems that the real time spent at VO2max is significantly different from an exhaustive run at a velocity close to vVO2max (105% vVO2max). However, the minimal velocity which elicits VO2max, and the tlim at this velocity appear to convey valuable information when analysing a runner's performance over 1500m to a marathon.
Publication Types: Review Review, tutorial
MEDLINE - PMID: 8857705, UI: 97010667

D Bishop : Physiological predictors of flat-water kayak performance in women. Eur J Appl Physiol, 2000, Vol 82, Iss 1-2, pp 91+
Address Bishop D, Western Australian Inst Sport, POB 139, Claremont, WA 6010, AUSTRALIA
Author KW accumulated oxygen deficit; anaerobic threshold; anthropometry; D-max; peak V02
Abstract : This study was conducted to investigate the relationship between selected physiological variables and 500-m flat-water kayak (K-500) performance. Nine female, high-performance kayak paddlers, mean (SD) age 23 (5) years, participated in this investigation. Testing was conducted over 6 days and included anthropometric measurements (height, bodymass and skinfolds), an incremental test to determine both peak (V) over dot 0-2 and the "anaerobic threshold" (Th-an), and a 2-min, all-out test to calculate accumulated oxygen deficit (AOD). Blood lactate concentrations were measured during the incremental test and at the completion of both tests. Subjects also completed a K-500 race under competition conditions. K-500 time was significantly correlated with both peak (V) over dot 0-2 (r = -0.82, P < 0.05) and the power output achieved at the end of the incremental test (r = -0.75, P <0.05). However, the variable most strongly correlated with K-500 time was Th-an (r = -0.89, P< 0.05). A stepwise multiple regression, for which r = 0.95 and the standard error of estimate= 1.6 s, yielded the following equation: K(500)time(s)= 160.6-0.154 x AOD. Kg(-l) -0.250 xTh-an. In conclusion, the results of this study have demonstrated that although K-500 performance is a predominantly aerobic activity, it does require a large anaerobic contribution. The importance of both the aerobic and anaerobic energy systems is reflected by the K-500 time being best predicted by a linear combination of Th-an and AOD . Kg(-1). This suggests the need to develop and implement training programmes that develop optimally both of these physiological attributes. Further research is required to elucidate the most effective means by which to develop both the aerobic and anaerobic energy systems.

D Bishop, D Bonetti, and B Dawson : The effect of three different warm-up intensities on kayak ergometer performance .Med. Sci. Sports Exerc., Vol. 33, No. 6, 2001, pp. 1026-1032
Department of Human Movement and Exercise Science, University of Western Australia, Nedlands, WA 6907, A USTRALIA
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of warm-up (WU) intensity on supramaximal kayak ergometer performance. Methods: In the initial testing session, eight institute of sport kayak squad members performed a graded exercise test for determination of VO2max and lactate (La) parameters. In a random, counterbalanced order, subjects subsequently performed WU for 15-min at either their aerobic threshold (W 1), their anaerobic threshold (W3), or mid-way between their aerobic threshold and anaerobic threshold (W2). A 5-min passive rest period and then a 2-min, all-out kayak ergometer test followed the WU. Results: For the three different WU conditions, no significant differences were observed for average power, peak VO,, total V02, total VC02, or accumulated oxygen deficit (AOD) during the 2-min test. However, when compared with W3, differences in average power approached significance after both W I (P = 0.09) and W2 (P = 0. 10). Furthermore, when compared with W3, average power during the first half of the 2-min test was significantly greater after W2 (P < 0.05) and approached significance after W1 (P = 0.06). After each WU period, there was a significant difference in blood pH (WI>W2>W3; P < 0.05) and blood (La) (W I <W2<W3; P < 0.05). Despite the significantly different metabolic acidemia after each WU condition, there were no significant differences in the V02 responses to the 2-min test. However. the greater metabolic acidemia after W3 was associated with impaired 2-min kayak ergometer performance. Conclusions: It was concluded, that although a degree of metabolic acidemia may be necessary to speed O2 kinetics, if the WU is too intense the associated metabolic acidemia may impair supramaximal performance by reducing the anaerobic energy contribution and/or interfering with muscle contractile processes.

Bishop D ,Bonetti D , Spencer M . The effect of an intermittent, high-intensity warm-up on supramaximal kayak ergometer performance Abr. source J Sport Sci, 2003, Vol 21, Iss 1, pp 13-20
Address Bishop D, Univ Western Australia, Sch Human Movement & Exercise Sport, 35 Stirling Highway, Crawley, WA 6009, AUSTRALIA Author
Abstract : It has previously been shown that the metabolic acidaemia induced by a continuous warm-up at the 'lactate threshold' is associated with a reduced accumulated oxygen deficit and decreased supramaximal performance.The aim of this study was todetermine if an intermittent, high-intensity warmup could increase oxygen uptake VO2 without reducing the accumulated oxygen deficit, and thus improve supramaximal performance. Seven male 500 m kayak paddlers, who had represented their state, volunteered for this study. Each performed a graded exercise test to determine VO2max and threshold parameters. On subsequent days and in a random, counterbalanced order, the participants then performed a continuous or intermittent, high-intensity warm-up followed by a 2 min, all-out kayak ergometer test. The continuous warm-up consisted of 15 min of exercise at approximately 65% VO2max. The intermittent, high-intensity warm-up was similar, except that the last 5 min was replaced with five 10 s sprints at 200% VO2max, separated by 50 s of recovery at similar to 55% VO2max. Significantly greater (P<0.05) peak power (intermittent vs continuous: 629&PLUSMIN;99 vs 601&PLUSMN;204 W) and average power (intermittent vs continuous: 328&PLUSMN;39.0 vs 321&PLUSMN;42.4 W) were recorded after the intermittent warm-up. There was no significant difference between conditions for peak VO2, total VO2 or the accumulated oxygen deficit. The results of this study indicate that 2 min all-out kayak ergometer performance is significantly better after an intermittent rather than a continuous warm-up.

Buglione A, Lazzer S, Colli R, Introini E, di Prampero PE : Energetics of Best Performances in Elite Kayakers and Canoeists. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2010 Oct 15. [Epub ahead of print]

1Human Performance Training and Lab " Carmelo Bosco", University Tor Vergata, Rome, Italy; 2School of Sport and Exercise Sciences, University Tor Vergata, Rome, Italy; 3Department of Biomedical Sciences and Technology, University of Udine, Udine, Italy 4School of Sport Sciences, University of Udine, Udine, Italy. 5 Italian Canoe and Kayak Federation, Italy;
Purpose: Objectives of this study were: 1) to validate a new test to determine maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) in kayakers, 2) to calculate the energy cost (Ck) of high level kayakers and canoeists at sub-maximal and race speeds, and 3) to correlate individual best performances achieved in practice with those theoretically calculated. These were obtained from the individual relationships ?r=f(t) and ?max=f(t), where ?r is the metabolic power required to cover the distance in question and ?max the maximal metabolic power. The time yielding ?r=?max was assumed to yield the best performance time.
Methods: Seventy-four male and female athletes from the Italian national canoe and kayak teams participated in this study. A portable metabolic unit was used to determine VO2max during an incremental exercise test on the boat. Peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak) was also measured in a 2-min test at 100% race speed over 1000 m. Individual Ck values were evaluated in tests of 6, 5 and 2 min at average speeds of 84, 90 and 100% of the 1000 m race speed.
Results: VO2max values determined during the incremental or the 2-min test were not significantly different (4613±619 vs 4582±598 ml·min-1). Ck (J·kg-1·m-1) of male kayakers increased from about 4 (at 3.23 m·s) to about 6 (at 4.63 m·s) and was about 30.7% smaller than that of male canoeists (P<0.001). Over the same speed range, male kayakers were about 14.2% more economical than females (P=0.044).
Conclusions: Individual theoretical best times and speeds were essentially equal to those measured during actual competitions.

Bunc V; Heller J : Ventilatory threshold and work efficiency on a bicycle and paddling ergomet in top canoeists. J Sports Med Phys Fitness (ITALY) Sep 1991 31 (3) p376-9
Physical Culture Research Institute, Charles University, Prague, Czechoslovakia.
ISSN: 0022-4707. Language: ENGLISH. Document TypeJOURNAL ARTICLE
The purpose of this investigation was to determine the effect of increasing specific (paddling ergometer) and non-specific (bicycle ergometer) work load on the parameters at the ventilatory threshold (VT) and on work efficiency (WE) during increasing exercise ergometry. When highly trained male canoeists were given an unspecific exercise load, the values of %V02max at VT were close to the values characteristic for an untrained population (72.3 +/- 5.3% V02max). When the same subjects were given a specific work load, they produced values typical for highly trained athletes (83.4 +/- 2.5% V02max). Non-specific exercise produced WE values close to those of untrained subjects on the bicycle ergometer (23.3 +/- 2.1%), and when loading is specific, the groups of working muscles are smaller, producing lower WE values (14.7 +/- 3.5%). It was concluded that the responses to submaximal exercise intensities in the case of nonspecific loading suggests caution in the interpretation of physiological variables which may be sensitive to training status. The assessment of VT and WE as supplementary characteristics during laboratory measurements, enables us, along with other parameters, to ascertain not only the effectiveness of the training process used, but also the specificity of a loading apparatus.
Tags: Human; Male. Descriptors: *Anaerobic Threshold--Physiology--PH; *Exercise--Physiology--P
H; *Respiration--Physiology--PH; *Sports; Adaptation, Physiological; Adult ; Ergometry; Exercise Test; Oxygen Consumption; Physical Education and Training

Bunc V; Heller J : Ventilatory threshold in young and adulte female athletes. J Sports Med Phys Fitness (ITALY) : Sep 1993 ; 33 (3) p233-8
Faculty of Physical Education, Charles University, Prague, Czechoslovakia.
ISSN: 0022-4707. Language: ENGLISH. Document Type : JOURNAL ARTICLE. Journal Announcement: 9405. Subfile: INDEX MEDICUS
We determined in a laboratory on the treadmill the ventilatory threshold in relatively similarly trained groups of young and adult female athletes (14 adult long-distance runners mean age = 24.3 +/- 2.3 yrs; mean 66.9 +/- 4.2; 11 adolescents 16.3 +/- 0.9; 58.4 +/- 4.4; 10 adult middle distance runners mean age = 22.9 +/- 2.9 yrs and = 62.3 +/- 3.7 ml/kg-1/min-1; 16 juniors 16.6 +/- 0.8 and 15.1 +/- 2.8; 7 adult canoeists 21.1 +/- 2.1 and 50.0 +/- 2.9; 8 adolescents 16.0 +/- 0.9 and 48.2 +/- 2.6). Maximal blood lactate concentration was found in all groups slightly lower in young athletes than in adults (in long-distance runners 10.9 +/- 2.6 vs 11.4 3.2 mmol.1-1; in middle-distance runners 12.4 +/- 2.3 vs 12.7 +/- 2.9; in canoeists 11.8 +/- 3.3 vs 12.1 +/- 3.6). The differences in maximal blood lactate concentration were nonsignificant in all groups. We did not find any significant differences in percentage of maximal aerobic power on the ventilatory threshold level. In long-distance runners the mean value of V02max at AT was 85.1 +/- 3.8% for adults and 84.9 +/- 2.7% for adolescents in middle-distance runners 82.9 +/- 2.1% and 82.6 +/- 3.2%, respectively, and in adult canoeists 79.9 +/- 2.6%, and in juniors 79.4 +/- 3.0%. According to these results we can conclude that the physical activity and/or level of physical fitness seem to be main factors which may influence the values of % V02max at VT during the growth.
Tags: Female; Human. Descriptors: *Oxygen Consumption--Physiology--PH; *Respiration--Physiology-PH; *Sports--Physiology--PH; Adolescence; Adult; Anaerobic Threshold--Physiology--PH; Body Composition; Carbon Dioxide--Metabolism--ME; Exercise Test; Lactates--Blood--BL; Physical Fitness; Running--Physiology--PH
CAS Registry No.: 0. (Lactates); 124-38-9 (Carbon Dioxide)

Carre F; Dassonville J; Beillot J; Prigent JY; Rochcongar P : Use of oxygen uptake recovery curve to predict peak oxygen uptake in upper body exercise. Eur J Appl Physiol (GERMANY) 1994 69 (3) p258-61.
Department of Physiology, Pontchaillou Hospital, Rennes, France.
ISSN: 0301-5548. Language: ENGLISH. Document Type : JOURNAL ARTICLE. Journal Announcement: 9503. Subfile: INDEX MEDICUS
A group of 18 well-trained white-water kayakers performed maximal upper body exercise in the laboratory and during a field test. Laboratory direct peak oxygen uptake (V02) values were compared, firstly by a V02 backward extrapolation estimation and secondly by an estimation calculated from V02 measured during the first 20 s of exercise recovery. Direct peak V02 correlated with V02 backward extrapolation (r = 0.89), but the results of this study showed that the backward extrapolation method tended to overestimate significantly peak V02 by [0.57 (SD 0.31) l.min-l in the laboratory, and 0.66(SD 0.33) l.min-l in the field, P < 0.001]. The V02 measured during the first 20 s of recovery, whether the exercise was performed in the laboratory or in the field, correlated well with the laboratory direct peak V02 (r = 0.92 and r= 0.91, respectively). The use of the regression equation obtained from field data (V02F20s), that is peak V02 = 0.23 + 1.08 V02F20s, gave an estimated peak V02, the mean difference of which compared with direct peak V02 was 0.22 (SD 3.13) l.min-1. In conclusion, we propose the use of a regression equation to estimate peak V02 from a single sample of the gas expired during the first 20 s of recovery after maximal exercise involving the upper part of the body.
Tags: Human; Male. Descriptors: *Arm--Physiology--PH; *Exercise Test--Methods--MT; *Oxygen Consumption--Physiology--PH; Adult; Regression Analysis; Sports.

Carre F : Pourquoi faut-il développer l’aérobie en canoë-kayak ? Echo des Pôles N°7 – février 2009

Clarkson PM, Kroll W, Melchionda AM : Isokinetic strength, endurance, and fiber type composition in elite American paddlers. Eur J Appl Physiol 1982;48(1):67-76
Muscle fiber type and isokinetic strength and fatigue were examined in nine highly trained canoe and kayak paddlers. Needle biopsies were taken from the right vastus lateralis and biceps brachii muscles and the samples stained for myofibrillar ATPase. Baseline elbow flexion and knee extension isometric (0 degrees . s-1) and isokinetic (60 degrees . s-1 or 1.05 rad . s-1 and 180 degrees . s-1 or 3.14 rad . s-1) peak torques were determined. Each subject then performed two series of 50 isokinetic contractions at an angular velocity of 180 degrees . s-1: elbow flexion and knee extension series, separated by 3 h. The percentage of slow twitch fibers was similar in the biceps brachii (43.9%) and the vastus lateralis (43.3%). The fast twitch/slow twitch fiber area ratio was significantly higher in the more highly trained biceps brachii due to larger FT fibers. No relationship was found between fiber type composition and baseline peak torques or decline in peak torque due to the fatigue regimens. Baseline peak torque correlated with initial strength level, body weight, and limb girth. The results suggested that for these paddlers muscle strength and the decline in strength induced by repetitive isokinetic contractions were more dependent on characteristics of body size than on fiber type composition.
MEDLINE - PMID: 7199455, UI: 82138752

Clingeleffer A; McNaughton LR; Davoren B : The use of critical power as a determinant for establishing the onset of blood lactate accumulation. Eur J Appl Physiol (GERMANY) 1994 68 (2) p182-7
Centre for Human Movement, University of Tasmania at Launceston, Australia.
ISSN: 0301-5548. Language: ENGLISH. Document Type : JOURNAL ARTICLE. Journal Announcement: 9409. Subfile: INDEX MEDICUS
Eight highly trained male kayakers were studied to determine the relationship between critical power (CP) and the onset of blood lactate accumulation (OBLA ). Four exercise sessions of 90 s, 240 s, 600 s, and 1200 s were used to identify the CP of each kayaker. Each individual CP was obtained from the line of best fit (LBFCP) obtained from the progressive work output/time relationships. The DBLA was identified by the 4 mmol.l-l blood lactate concentration and the work of paddling at 50 W for 5 min after which a l-min rest was taken during which a 25-microliters blood sample was taken to analyse for lactate. Exercise was increased by 50 W every 5 min until exhaustion, with the blood sample being taken in the l-min rest period. The exercise intensity at the OBLA for each subject was then calculated and this was compared to the exercise intensity a the LBFCP. The intensity at LBFCP was found to be significantly higher (t=2.115, P < 0.05) than that at the OBLA of 4 mmol.l-1. These results were further confirmed by significant differences being obtained in blood lactate concentration (t = 8.063, P < 0.05) and heart rate values (t = 2.90, P < 0.05) obtained from the exercise intensity at LBFCP over a 20-min period and that of the anaerobic threshold (Th(an)) parameters obtained from the lactate/heart rate curve. (ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
Tags: Human; Male. Descriptors: *Lactates--Blood--BL; Adult; Anaerobic Threshold; Heart Rate; Osmolar Concentration; Sports; Time Factors
CAS Registry No.: 0 (Lactates); 50-21-5 (lactic acid)

Clingeleffer A; Mc Naughton L; Davoren B : Critical power may be determined from two tests in elite kayakers. Eur J Appl Physiol (GERMANY) 1994 68 (1) p36-40
Centre for Human Movement Studies, University of Tasmania at Launceston, Australia.
ISSN: 0301-5548. Language: ENGLISH. Document Type : JOURNAL ARTICLE. Journal Announcement: 9407. Subfile: INDEX MEDICUS
Eight highly trained male kayakers were studied in an attempt to examine whether critical power (CP), based upon four tests, could be determined from a combination of any two tests. The mean age of the subjects was 26.3 (SEM 3.8 years, mean height was 180.9 (SEM 5.1) cm, and mean body mass was 81.7 (SEM 3.3) kg. Four exercise sessions of 90 s, 240 s, 600 s, and 1200 s duration were used. For each subject the total work output was plotted against the duration of each test, the CP being obtained from the line of best fit. The CP obtained from this relationship was then compared to the CP derived from six combinations (90/240, 90/600, 90/1200, 240/600, 240/1200 and 600 00 s) of various performance times. A repeated measures analysis of variance found a significant difference between the exercise intensity obtained from the line of best fit and that obtained for the combination of exercise times of 90/240 s, T (7,1) = 11.12 (P < 0.05). No other significant differences were found between the CP from the line of best fit and that from any of the other possible exercise combinations. This would suggest that any combination of time intervals except 90/240 s may be used to determine the CP of elite kayakers.
Tags: Human; Male. Descriptors: *Exercise Test--Methods--MT; *Muscle Contraction--Physiology--PH; *Sports--Physiology--PH; Adult; Evaluation Studies; Exercise--Physiology--PH; Time Factors.

Eclache J-P, Benezit C,Baudry M : La détermination de l'aptitude bioénergétique chez les athlètes des équipes nationales pratiquant le canoë-kayak. Bull Ass. Sport Biol 1984;2:1-19

ECLACHE J. P. , ECLACHE S. , RIVIERE P. : Protocole croissant à une variable alternée : détermination automatisée dans les sports à déplacement des modifications d'efficacité énergétiques liées aux choix techniques, tactiques et de matériels . Science & sports. [ Sci. sports. ] , 1992 , vol. 7 , no 3 , pp. 185 - 186.
Type de document : PERIODIQUE. Langue : Français. Cote INIST : 21171. Editeur : France

Fry RW, Morton AR : Physiological and kinanthropometric attributes of elite flatwater kayakists. Med Sci Sports Exerc 1991 Nov;23(11):1297-1301
Department of Human Movement and Recreation Studies, University of Western Australia, Nedlands.
Physical and physiological factors accounting for the variability of performance in 500, 1000, 10,000, and 42,000 m flatwater kayaking were investigated using linear regression. Times achieved for each distance were used as the dependent variable for analysis while the independent variables were the parameters derived from the test battery. The 38 kayakists who participated were categorized as either state team members or nonselected paddlers, based on an objective selection policy. Several of the participant subjects were Australian international representatives. All selected paddlers were grouped together and Student's t-tests performed to determine which variables could distinguish between selected and nonselected paddlers. Simple regression was used to determine the strength of association of each parameter with performance time over each race distance, and multiple regression was used to generate equations for the prediction of performance times. Aerobic power and variables related to the aerobic-anaerobic transition were examined using gas analysis during an incremental workload test on a kayak ergometer. A 1-min all-out test also on a kayak ergometer was used to obtain an indication of anaerobic capacity and power. Muscular strength and fatigue were assessed using a simulated kayak stroke on a Cybex isokinetic dynamometer. Physical characteristics were determined using kinanthropometric tests. Aerobic power, anaerobic power and capacity, muscular strength, resistance to muscular fatigue, and measures of body size were significantly greater in more successful kayakists. All of the parameters measured correlated significantly with performance time over at least one of the four race distances.
MEDLINE -PMID: 1766347, UI: 92114732

Gray GL, Matheson GO, McKenzie DCAllan McGavin The metabolic cost of two kayaking techniques. Int J Sports Med 1995 May;16(4):250-254
Sports Medicine Centre, University of British Columbia,Vancouver, Canada.
A common technique employed in flatwater kayak and canoe races is "washriding", in which a paddler positions his/her boat on the wake of a leadingboat and, at a strategic moment, drops off the wake to sprint ahead. It was hypothesized that this manoeuver was energy efficient, analogous to drafting in cycling. To study this hypothesis, minute ventilation (VE), heart rate (HR) and oxygen consumption (VO2) were measured in 10 elite male kayak paddlers (age =25 +/- 6.5 yrs, height = 183.6 +/- 4.4 cm, mass = 83.9 +/- 6.1 kg) duringsteady-state exercise at a standardized velocity in conditions of "wash riding"(WR) and "non-wash riding" (NWR). The data were collected in field conditions using a portable telemetric metabolic system (Cosmed K2). Statistical analysis of the mean values for VE, VO2 and HR was performed using the Hotelling's T2 statistic and revealed significant (p < 0.05) differences between the WR and NWR trials for all three dependent variables. Mean values for VE (l/min) wereWR = 113 +/- 16.5, NWR = 126.3 +/- 15.7; for VO2 (l/min) were WR = 3.22 +/-0.32, NWR = 3.63 +/- 0.3; and for HR (bpm) were WR = 167 +/- 9.9, NWR = 174 +/-8.0. It was concluded that wash riding during kayak paddling confers substantial metabolic savings at the speeds tested. This has implications for the design of training programs and competitive strategies for flatwaterdistance kayak racing.Publication Types: Clinical trial Randomized controlled trial.
MEDLINE - PMID: 7657419, UI: 95386267

- Hamdani M., Peyrot G. : Suivi longitudinal des paramètres physiologiques d’une population de haut niveau en canoë-kayak spécialiste de l’épreuve de slalom : une analyse rétrospective.Mémoire de maîtrise mention "entraînement sportif";Département STAPS de Tarbes, Université de Pau et des Pays de l’Adour ; Année universitaire 2002-2003- document pdf 256 Ko

J.M. Lévêque, J. Brisswalter, 0. Bernard, C. Goubault : Evaluation des caractéristiques physiologiques des kayakistes de descente de haut niveau de performance. Science & Sports 2001 ; 16: 23-8
université de Poitiers, France; université de Toulon-Var France ; service de physiologie respiratoire, CHU de Poitiers, France
Objectifs - Le but de ce travail était d'étudier les caractéristiques physiologiques associées à la performance en kayak de descente, chez des kayakistes de haut niveau de performance.
Sujets et méthodes - Douze kayakistes de descente, masculins et de haut niveau de performance, ont réalisé deux tests en laboratoire et un test en situation spécifique de kayak. Le premier test de laboratoire permettait de déterminer VO2 ., la puissance de travail associée à V02 max (IV02 .) et le seuil ventilatoire (AT); le second test évaluait le temps maximal d'exercice à IV02 max, (tlim à IV02 max) et le déficit maximal en oxygène (DO2max). Le test spécifique de terrain était un test de détermination de la vitesse critique (VC) adapté au kayak (Clingeleffer et al., 1994). Le classement fédéral national servait de référence pour déterminer le niveau de performance des sujets, en kayak de descente.
Résultats - La performance en kayak de descente est significativement corrélée à V02max. (r = -0,50), à IV02 max (r = -0, 80) et à VC (r = -0, 73). Par ailleurs, des corrélations significatives ont été relevées entre VC et V02 max (r = 0, 62), IV02 max (r = 0,79), tlim à IV02max (r = 0,58) et AT (r = 0,52).
Conclusion - Dans une perspective d'évaluation de l'aptitude physique des kayakistes de descente, ces résultats indiquent d' une part l'importance de l'aptitude aérobie dans la performance en kayak de descente, et d'autre part l'intérêt de l'évaluation de la vitesse critique en situation spécifique de kayak.
mots-clés : capacité anaérobie/ kayak/ puissance maximale aérobie/ vitesse critique

J.M. Levêque 1*, J• Brisswalter2, O. Bernard : Effet de la cadence de pagayage sur la cinétique de V02 au cours d'un exercice spécifique de kayak. Science & Sports 2002;17:95-7
1 Laboratoire d'analyse de la performance motrice humaine, Université de Poitiers, France; 2 unité ergonomie sportive et performance, université de Toulon- Var Toulon- Var France
Introduction - Dans cette étude, la composante rapide de la cinétique de l'oxygène est étudiée au cours d'un exercice spécifique de kayak.
Synthèse des faits - Sept kayakistes de haut niveau (âge moyen : 22 ± 1,6 ans) ont effectué dans trois conditions de cadences différentes (50, 60 et 70 cycles.min) un exercice d'intensité maximale (lVO2max). Aucun effet général de la cadence n'est observé sur la cinétique de l'oxygène. L'utilisation d'une cadence élevée est associée à un temps d'épuisement (tlim) significativement plus important (r = 0,80; p <0,05). Par ailleurs, l'observation individuelle met en évidence un effet de la cadence sur la constante de temps (sans qu'il existe un lien avec le temps limite ou le Pic V02).
Conclusion - La discussion envisage les différentes hypothèses permettant d'interpréter la relation entre la cadence et la constante de temps et notamment les possibles effets de la cadence sur le recrutement musculaire.
cadence / cinétique de l'oxygène / kayak /I temps-limite

LEVEQUE JM, BRISSWALTER J, BERNARD O and GOUBAULT C. : Effect of Paddling Cadence on Time to Exhaustion and VO2 Kinetics and Intensity Associated With VO2Max in Elite White-Water Kayakers. Can. J. Appl. Physiol.;27(6):602-611.
L'influence de la cadence de pagayage sur le temps limite (t.lim) et sur la cinétique de VO2 à la vitesse associée à VO2max(IVO2max) a été étudiée chez sept kayakistes de très haut-niveau (niveau national et international). Chaque kayakiste a réalisé trois épreuves épuisantes à IO2max, à trois cadences différentes (50, 60 or 70 cycles mn). Une augmentation significative de t.lim (P < 0,05) a été observée avec l'augmentation de la cadence de 50 à 70 cycles min. La cinétique de O2 enregistrée durant ces tests a été décrite à l'aide d'une équation mono-exponentielle. Aucun effet n'a été observé sur la valeur de VO2peak, de la concentration sanguine de lactate post-exercice ou sur le temps d'atteinte de VO2peak (TAVO2peak). Nos résultats suggèrent que les kayakistes doivent être évalués à de hautes fréquences de pagayage. Néanmoins, d'autres études sont nécessaires pour appréhender la signification physiologique de t.lim à IVO2max.

Lutoslawska G, Sendecki W : Plasma biochemical variables in response to 42-km kayak and canoe races. J Sports Med Phys Fitness 1990 Dec;30(4):406-411
Department of Biochemistry, Institute of Sport, Warszawa, Poland.
Some plasma biochemical parameters were examined one day prior, immediately after and 18 h after 42-km canoe and kayak races. The increases in plasma glycerol, lactate, ammonia and uric acid as well as the elevation in plasma CK, LDH and transaminase activities confirm the changes induced by different prolonged efforts. However some differences between canoeists and kayakers were indicated for ammonia and urea plasma concentration after the race, lactate elimination and increase in CK and transaminase activities. The influence of body posture and the impact of the static component during effort are discussed as a reason for observed disparity in response to prolonged races.
MEDLINE- PMID: 2079848, UI: 91179135

McNaughton LR, Dalton B, Tarr J : The effects of creatine supplementation on high-intensity exercise performance in elite performers. Eur J Appl Physiol Occup Physiol 1998 Aug;78(3):236-40
Kingston University, Kingston upon Thames, Survey, UK.
The aim of this research was to determine whether creatine supplementation at a dose of 20 g x day(-1), given in 4 x 6-g doses (5 g creatine monohydrate and 1 g glucose) for 5 days, was effective in improving kayak ergometer performances of different durations. Sixteen male subjects with the following characteristics [mean (SEM)]: age 21 (1.2) years, height 170.2 (1.7) cm, weight 75.3 (2.3) kg, sigma8 skinfolds 59.3 (2.6) mm, and maximal oxygen consumption 67.1 +/- (4.3) ml x kg x min(-1), undertook three maximal kayak ergometer tests of 90, 150 and 300 s duration on a wind-braked kayak ergometer (CON). Two groups were then randomly formed, with one group taking the supplement (SUP) while the other took a placebo (PLAC). No pre-test differences existed between the SUP and the PLAC groups in any of the variables measured. After supplementation each group then repeated the same kayak ergometer tests as performed previously and after a 4-week "washout period" the groups took either the PLAC or SUP for another 5 days and then completed the final tests. The SUP group completed significantly more work than either the CON or PLAC groups in all of the tests (90 s, P < 0.01; 150 s, P < 0.001; 300 s, P < 0.05). Body mass remained stable throughout the test period in both the CON and PLAC groups, but both were significantly less than the SUP body mass of 77.3 (1.0) kg (P < 0.01). The results of this work indicate that creatine supplementation can significantly increase the amount of work accomplished during kayak ergometer performance at durations ranging from 90 to 300 s.
Publication Types: Clinical trial, Randomized controlled trial.
PMID: 9721002, UI: 98385956

Pendergast DR, Bushnell D, Wilson DW, Cerretelli P : Energetics of kayaking. Eur J Appl Physiol 1989;59(5):342-350
Department of Physiology, State University of New York at Buffalo 14214.
The metabolic cost of paddling at low speeds (v) was measured from oxygen uptake (vVO2) and anaerobic glycolysis in an annular pool or calculated from submaximal vVO2 measured at higher speeds when the kayaker was assisted in overcoming water resistance. Also calculated were the total drag (D) and the net mechanical efficiency (e). Each of the above variables was determined in male (n = 17) and female (n = 7) kayakers ranging in experience from beginners to elite. The vVO2 increased with v to a peak of approximately 3.4 l.min-1 (80%-100% of peak VO2 during running) in men and of approximately 2.8 l.min-1 in women, while at higher speeds the additional energy was accounted for by anaerobic glycolysis. In all subjects the energy cost to paddle a given distance (C) increased according to a power function with increasing v. The C was lower for the elite male paddlers than for the unskilled group, while that for elite women was slightly less than that for the elite men. Also the rates of increase of C appeared to be inversely proportional to the subjects' skill. Total D for elite men increased from approximately 15 to 60 N over a range of speeds from 1 to 2.2 m.s-1 while those of unskilled men and skilled women for the same speed range were 10-20 N greater and slightly less, respectively. The e increased linearly, but at a different rate, with increases in v for the unskilled and the elite kayakers (males and females) being 4.2% and 6%, respectively, at v = 1.2 m.s-1.
MEDLINE - PMID: 2598914, UI: 90092077 MEDLINE - PMID: 2598914, UI: 90092077

Peres G, Vandewalle H, Monod H : Puissance maximale anaérobie des membres supérieurs : étude comparée entre différentes populations de canoë-kayakistes. Med. Sport 1968;62,3:134-139

Puig J, Freitas J, Carvalho MJ, Puga N, Ramos J, Fernandes P, Costa O, de Freitas AFJ : Spectral analysis of heart rate variability in athletes. Sports Med Phys Fitness 1993 Mar;33(1):44-48
Oporto Sports Medicine Center.
The objectives of the study were to characterize power spectrum pattern of the heart rate variability and assessment of the relative contributions ofsympathetic and parasympathetic cardiac nervous system control in athletes.Thirty-three male athletes, swimming (1), canoeing (10), cycling (6), athletics(4), football (3), roller-skating (2) and volleyball (7) aged 23.4 +/- 5.5 years, with a mean athletic level of 18 hours/week (8-45) and 33 sedentaryhealthy control subjects were included. Ecg signals were recorded after aperiod of 15 minutes in supine rest with controlled breathing at 15 cycles/min.Signal acquisition was done at 300 samples/sec. From 512 consecutive heartbeats, we calculated mean average, standard deviation, maximum and minimum R-Rintervals and, after computing the fast Fourier transform, total spectrumpower, low frequency (LF), high frequency (HF) components and its ratio(LF/HF). The average R-R interval was 987.7 +/- 168.8 ms and 762.7 +/- 125.3ms, the variance was 5.44 and 2.51 ms2 and ratio of R-R interval maximum/minimum (E/I ratio) 1.53 +/- 0.16 and 1.41 +/- 0.16, respectively forathletes and control group. Differences between groups were significant (p <0.01) for all parameters, with higher variability in the athletes. Bothspectral bands (LF and HF) had higher power in athletes (LF = 925 +/- 920 andHF = 2258 +/- 2349 ms2) than in the control group (LF = 442 +/- 446 and HF =1179 +/- 1542 ms2) (p < 0.01). There were no significant differences for LF/HFratio, or normalized LF (LF%) or normalized HF (HF%) between groups.
MEDLINE - PMID: 8350607, UI: 93353865

REBEYROL F : Caractéristiques de l’exercice Sprint et Classique (Descente). Echo des Pôles N° 6 - décembre 2008

Ridge BR, Pyke FS, Roberts AD : Responses to kayak ergometer performance after kayak and bicycle ergometer training. Med Sci Sports 1976;8(1):18-22
Ten moderately active male volunteers, age 19-30 years, completed one month oftraining on either a kayak or a bicycle ergometer (five men in each group). The men completed sixteen 30 minute sessions of continuous work at an intensity which maintained their HR within 85-90% of its maximum, as previously determined on the kayak ergometer. After this training period the kayak group demonstrated significant decreases in VO2, VE, HR and blood lactate in submaximal kayak ergometer work and a significant increase in VO2 during maximal kayak ergometer work. These changes contributed to a significantly higher maximal kayaking work output. The bicycle-trained group did not make any of these improvements on the kayak ergometer. However in their last training session on the bicycle ergometer they were able to work at a higher submaximal load while maintaining the same heart rate as in the first training session. It was concluded that the circulatory and metabolic adjustments to kayak work are greater with kayak training than with bicycle training.
MEDLINE - PMID: 1272000, UI: 76195366

Tesch P, Piehl K, Wilson G, Karlsson J : Physiological investigations of Swedish elite canoe competitors. Med Sci Sports 1976;8(4):214-218
Maximal as well as submaximal heart rate and oxygen uptake were measured duringpaddling and other types of arm and leg exercise in Swedish elite canoeists.Muscle fiber composition was determined in the canoeists: 4 seniors (22-28 yearold) as well as 2 juniors (18 years). Vo2max during treadmill running averagedin the seniors 5.4 1 x min -1 and during arm exercise. Corresponding values forthe juniors were 4.7 1 x min -1 and 4.21 x min -1 or 88%. Paddling 500 mresulted in relatively low oxygen uptake, but the highest blood lactate concentrations, whereas 1,000 m gave the highest oxygen uptake but also high blood lactate concentrations. During a 10,000 m race the heart rate was approximately 97% (range 96-98%) of the maximum measured. In nine present andformer winners of World Championships or Olympic medals, fiber types were determined in the deltoid muscle. These data indicated that canoeists, who weresuccessful in 500 m races, had a higher percentage of fast twitch (FT) musclefibers (range 50-59%) than medalists, who competed in 10,000 m races (26-52%FT).
MEDLINE - PMID: 1011956, UI: 77099310

Tesch PA, Karlsson J : Muscle metabolite accumulation following maximal exercise. A comparison between short-term and prolonged kayak performance. Eur J Appl Physiol 1984;52(2):243-246
Five elite flatwater kayak paddlers were studied during indoor simulated 500 and 10,000-m races, with performance times of 2 and 45 min, respectively. Muscle biopsies were obtained from the midportion of m. deltoideus immediately pre and post exercise. Concentrations of adenosine triphosphate (ATP), creatine phosphate (CP), glucose, glucose-6-phosphate (G-6-P), glycogen, and lactate were subsequently determined. Short term exercise resulted in statistically significant increases in glucose (P less than 0.001), G-6-P (P less than 0.05) and lactate (P less than 0.01) concentration concomitant with decreased CP (P less than 0.05) and glycogen (P less than 0.01). Following prolonged exercise, a non-significant elevation in glucose and a reduction (P less than 0.01) in glycogen were demonstrated. Evidently the metabolic demands for kayak competitions at 500 and 10,000 m are different. Thus, the energy contribution from glycolytic precursors and the anaerobic component is of greater relative importance in short distances than in exercise of long duration. A generalization of the findings to other athletic events of varying distances is proposed. The present data on arm-exercise is consistent with previous findings obtained in connection with leg exercises.MEDLINE - PMID: 6538841, UI: 84182562

Tesch PA, Karlsson J : Muscle fiber type characteristics of M. deltoideus in wheelchair athletes. Comparison with other trained athletes. Am J Phys Med 1983 Oct;62(5):239-243
Muscle biopsies were obtained from the midportion of m. deltoideus of seven male wheelchair basketball athletes. High caliber kayak paddlers (n = 8) and wrestlers (n = 8) as well as mountain ranger soldiers (n = 8) served as controls. Histochemical methods were applied to identify fast twitch (FT) and slow twitch (ST) fibers and furthermore assess muscle fiber type distribution and muscle fiber cross-sectional area. The relative percentage of FT fibers averaged (+/-SD) 47 +/- 12% and 52 +/- 9% in wheelchair athletes and soldiers. The value obtained in kayakers was significantly lower (30 +/- 11). Both FT area (p less than 0.01) and mean fiber area (p less than 0.05) were significantly larger in wheelchair athletes as compared with soldiers and kayakers. It is suggested that the involvement in specific physical training was the main cause for hypertrophy of individual muscle fibers observed in m. deltoideus of wheelchair athletes.
MEDLINE - PMID: 6226203, UI: 84021265

Tesch PA : Physiological characteristics of elite kayak paddlers. Can J Appl Sport Sci 1983 Jun;8(2):87-91
Elite flat-water kayak paddlers were characterized with regard to body composition, muscle strength and endurance for upper-body exercise. Furthermore, maximal oxygen uptake was measured during three types of exercise: treadmill running, arm cranking and outdoor paddling. Blood samples for subsequent lactate analysis were collected not only after maximal exercises but also during training sessions and post 1000 m racing. In comparison with other groups of athletes known to exhibit great upper-body muscle strength, kayakers were found to possess high values for shoulder strength, endurance and anaerobic capacity. Total body maximal oxygen uptake averaged (+/- SD) 5.36 +/- 0.25 l X min-1. The values for arm cranking and paddling were 4.30 +/- 0.29 l x min-1 and 4.67 +/- 0.16 l x min-1. High blood lactate levels were noticed under training conditions and post competition (11.0-17.5 mmol X l-1). Taken together, the present study suggests success in flat-water kayak racing to require great upper-body muscle strength, anaerobic capacity and endurance in addition to high aerobic power.
MEDLINE - PMID: 6883619, UI: 83285695

Tesch PA, Lindeberg S : Blood lactate accumulation during arm exercise in world class kayak paddlers and strength trained athletes. Eur J Appl Physiol 1984;52(4):441-445
Blood lactate accumulation was studied during progressive arm exercise in maleand female world class kayak paddlers (K male, K female, n = 11),weight-/power-lifters (WL/PL, n = 6), bodybuilders (BB, n = 8) and non-athletes(NA, n = 6). The heavy resistance trained athletes exhibited greater upper-bodymuscle volume than the other subject groups. During low submaximal exercise intensities, blood lactate concentrations were significantly lower both in maleand female kayakers compared with WL/PL, BB, and NA. Mean values at 120 W were1.9 (K male), 2.1 (K female), 4.8 (WL/PL), 4.5 (BB), and 5.1 (NA) mmol X l-1.At higher power outputs the difference between females and non-kayakersdiminished, while the difference between K male and all other groups increased.Exercise tolerance was greatest in K male and was equal among the other groups.Our results suggest that factors other than the muscle mass per se involved inexercise are responsible for the blood lactate response during this kind ofwork. Moreover, the physiological response observed in kayakers probably represents the upper limit of man's ability to perform continuous progressivearm-cranking exercise.
MEDLINE - PMID: 6540673, UI: 84285313

van Someren KA, Phillips GR, Palmer G : Comparison of physiological responses to open water kayaking and kayak ergometry. Int J Sports Med 2000 Apr;21(3):200-4
Department of Sport, Health and Exercise Science, St. Mary's, England.
This study compared the physiological responses of simulated kayaking on a K1 ERGO kayak ergometer with open water paddling. Nine well-trained male kayakers (VO2peak 4.27 +/- 0.58 L x min(-1), age 24 +/- 4 yr, mass 77.3 +/- 6.4 kg, height 179.5 +/- 5.3 cm; [mean +/- SD]) performed two 4 min exercise bouts on open water (OW) and on an air braked kayak ergometer (Erg). During exercise, expired air and heart rate (HR) were continuously measured. The distance covered during OW (992 +/- 47.1 m) was highly correlated (r2 = 0.86) with the total work performed in Erg (47.64 +/- 7.67 kJ). There were no differences between trials for oxygen uptake, carbon dioxide production or estimated carbohydrate oxidation. However, during OW, minute ventilation was significantly higher at 60 and 90 s (104.2 +/- 16.4 vs. 92.6 +/- 20.4 L x min(-1) and 120.5 +/- 15.8 vs. 111.7 +/- 17.6 L x min(-1) for 60 and 90 s, respectively, p < 0.05), and HR was higher in OW during the first minute (120 +/- 20 vs. 104 +/- 19 beats x min(-1), 164 +/- 8 vs. 147 +/- 18 beats x min(-1) and 178 +/- 6 vs. 170 +/- 7 beats x min(-1) for 0, 30, and 60 s, respectively, p < 0.05). There were no differences in peak VO2 between OW and Erg (4.10 +/- 0.49 vs. 4.09 +/- 0.53 L x min(-1), respectively) nor in post-exercise blood (lactate) (6.43 +/- 1.47 vs. 6.59 +/- 0.99 mmol x L(-1), respectively). We conclude that the K1 ERGO accurately simulates the physiological demands of short-term, high-intensity kayaking.
PMID: 10834353, UI: 20292187

KA vanSomeren, JE Oliver : The efficacy of ergometry determined heart rates for flatwater kayak training. Int J Sport Med, 2002, Vol 23, Iss 1, pp 28-32
Address : van Someren KA, Kingston Univ, Sch Life Sci, Penrhyn Rd, Kingston upon Thames KT1 2EE, Surrey, ENGLAND
Author KW: lactate threshold; kayak ergometry; training prescription
Abstract : The aim of this study was to investigate the use of incremental ergometry determined heart rate training intensities for the control of kayak ergometer and open water kayak training. Eight well-trained male kayakers completed a maximal incremental exercise test on an air-braked kayak ergometer for the determination of LT1 (the power output at which blood lactate concentration increased by greater than or equal to 1 mmol x L-1), the associated heart rate (HR-LT1), VO2peak, maximal heart rate and maximal aerobic power. Subjects then performed 20 min trials of kayak ergometry (E), open water kayaking in a single kayak (K1) and open water kayaking in a four-seat kayak (K4) at HR-LT1. During the three trials, heart rate was continuously measured, and blood lactate concentration, rating of perceived exertion (RPE) and stroke rate were determined every 5 min. In all trials, exercise at HR-LT1 resulted in stable blood lactate concentrations and a stable RPE. Comparison of the three trials demonstrated that the only difference was for RPE, which was lower in (K4) than in (E), (p <0.05). The results demonstrate that the prescription of HR-LT1 elicits similar blood lactate concentrations during kayak ergometer and open water kayak training in both single and team boats.

- Van Someren KA (1), Palmer CS (2). Prediction of 200-m sprint kayaking performance. Can. J. Appt. Physiol. 28(4):505-517
(1) School of Life Sciences, Kingston University, Penrhyn Road, Kingston-up onThames, KT1 2EE, U.K.; (2) School of Sport, Performing Arts and Leisure, University of Wolverhampton, Gorway Road, Walsall, WFI 3BD, U.K.
Cette étude se propose d'évaluer les caractéristiques anthropométriques et physiologiques de kayakistes spécialisés au 200 m sprint et d'établir la relation avec cettee performance. Vingt-six kayakistes, répartis en deux groupes selon leur niveau, international (MI) ou national (Nat), sont soumis à des séances d'évaluation de leurs caractéristiques anthropoinétriques et physiologiques et de leur performance sur 200 m. Le temps de performance est significativement meilleur chez le groupe MI que chez le groupe Nat (39,9 ±0,8 s et 42,6 ± 0,9 s, respectivement), chez les athlètes du groupe MI, les valeurs des variables suivantes sont supérieures: mésomorphie, diamètre biépicondylien, circonférences du bras, de l'avant-bras et de la poitrine, puissance de pointe et quantité totale de travail au cours d'un test de Wingate modifié, temps total de travail au cours d'une épreuve ergométrique d'une durée de 2 mm, puissance isokinétique de crête, et tension isométrique de crête. On observe des corrélations significatives entre des variables anthropométriques, des variables de performance anaérobie et dynamométrique et la performance. L'analyse de régression multiple indique que 1a quantité totale de travail au cours du test de Wingate modifié est en elle-même une variable prédictive de la performance sur200-m (R2= 0,53; ETE = 1,11 s) pour tous les sujets, alors que le diamètre biépicondylien seul est aussi une variable prédictive du temps de performance (R2 = 0,54; ETE 0,52 s) chez les athlètes du groupe Int. Les résultats indiquent que les caractéristiques anthropométriques de la partie haute du corps et les capacités anaérobies des kayakistes internationaux sont supérieures à celles des kayakistes nationaux et peuvent servir à la prédiction de la performance sur 200 m.

Van Someren K. : Prediction of flatwater kayaking performance. International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance v3(2) Jun 2008.; p.207-218


Purpose: To determine the relative importance of anthropometric and physiological attributes for performance in the 1000-m, 500-m, and 200-m flatwater kayaking events.
Methods: Eighteen competitive male kayakers completed performance trials over the 3 distances and a battery of anthropometric and physiological tests.
Results: Performance times (mean +/- SD) for 1000 m, 500 m, and 200 m were 262.56 +/- 36.44 s, 122.10 +/- 5.74 s, and 41.59 +/- 2.12 s, respectively. Performance in all 3 events was correlated with a number of physiological parameters; in addition, 500-m and 200-m performance was correlated with upper body dimensions. 1000-m time was predicted by power output at lactate turnpoint expressed as a percentage of maximal aerobic power, work done in a 30-s ergometry test and work done in a 2-min ergometry test (adjusted R2 = 0.71, SEE = 5.72 s); 500-m time was predicted by work done and the fatigue index in a 30-s ergometry test, work done in a 2-min ergometry test, peak isometric and isokinetic function (adjusted R2 = 0.79, SEE = 2.49 s); 200-m time was predicted by chest circumference, humeral breadth, peak power, work done, and the fatigue index in a 30-s ergometry test (adjusted R2 = 0.71, SEE = 0.71 s).
Conclusions: A number of physiological variables are correlated with performance in all events. 1000-m, 500-m, and 200-m times were predicted with a standard error of only 2.2%, 2.0%, and 1.7%, respectively.

Vrijens J, Hoekstra P, Bouckaert J, Van Uytvanck P : Effects of training on maximal working capacity and haemodynamic response during arm and leg-exercise in a group of paddlers. Eur J Appl Physiol 1975 Apr 4;34(2):113-119
Maximal oxygen uptake and circulatory adaptation to work with legs and arms were studied in a group of 5 paddlers members of the Belgian national squad and a control-group of 9 trained subjects. The results showed that the specific armtraining of paddlers induced changes in the arm-to-leg ration of physiological parameters at submaximal and maximal work. In the group of paddlers maximal oxygen intake and workload during arm-exercise averaged respectively 88.6% and 80.3% of the scores obtained with leg-exercise. In the control group the arm to leg ratio varied between 81.2% and 65.2%. At a submaximal load of 100 W the difference in heartfrequency was 21 beats/min in the canoe group and 35 beats/min in the control group. Oxygen consumption and ventilation during work with the arms was lower in the group of paddlers. The data of our study suggest that the specific training of paddlers do result in a effect on the haemodynamic adaptations to arm work.
MEDLINE - PMID: 1193087, UI: 76066089

Wozniak A, DrewaG and al. : Effect of cryogenic temperatures and exercise on antioxydant enzymes activity in erythrocytes of kayakers. Biol. Sport 19; 2002:63-72
Dept. of Biology, Ludwik Rydygier Medical University in Bydgoszc:, Poland,
Military Sports Centre, PMR, Bydgos:cz, Poland
Abstract : In the present study we have investigated the influence of cryogenic temperatures and exercise on antioxidant enzyme activity in the erythrocytes of
kayakers. Activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) andglutathione peroxidase (GSHPx) have been assayed. The study was performed on
10 kayakers (Polish Olympic Team) who were training for 31 days to prepare for a competition. In the first ten days of training sportsmen additionally had cryogenic chamber sessions. The blood samples were taken: before the start of the study, after the fifth and the tenth day of training accompanied with cryostimulation and on the seventh, fourteenth and twenty first day of exercise without cryogenic stimulation. GSHPx activity significantly increased after the fifth day of training and cryostimulation and decreased significantly after tenth day of training and cryostimulation. CAT activity did not show statistically significant
increase after the fifth day of training and cryogenic session and a statistically significant decrease was observed on the tenth day. Training performed after the end of cryostimulation did not have statistically significant influence on SOD activity. Activity of CAT significantly decreased on the fourteenth day of training and GSHPX decreased significantly on the 21' day of exercise not preceded by cryostimulation. It is difficult to estimate the influence of cryogenic session on pro- and antioxidant mechanisms during exercise. (BioL Sport 19:63-72,2002)
Key words: Cryogenic chamber - Superoxide dismutase (SOD) - Catalase (CAT) -
Glutathione peroxidase (GSHPx)
Reprint request to Ph.D. Alma Woniak, Dept. of Biology, Ludwik Rydygier Medical
University in Bydgoszcz, Karlowicza 24, 85-092 Bydgoszcz, Poland