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santé et pratique du canoë-kayak


AcklandTR , OngKB , Kerr KB & Ridlge B : Morphological characteristics of Olympic sprint canoe and kayak paddlers. Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport. 2003;6(3): 285-294.
The University of Western Australia. - Curtin University of Technology. Western Australia. -University of Western Sydney, New South Wales. Australia.

Canoe and kayak paddlers (n= 50 M & 20 F) who competed in the sprint events at the 2000 Olympic Games in Sydney were measured on a battery of 38 anthropometry dimensions prior to competition. The ensuing analysis aimed to identify common physical characteristics that provide these elite paddlers with a competitive advantage. This study demonstrated that participants in Olympic sprint paddling events can be considered homogeneous in shape and physical size; male and female paddlers have SAMs of 1.1 and 1.0 respectively. Compared to other athlete groups, the variance in stature and body mass of paddlers is generally low. Whilst sprint paddlers are not athletes with extreme proportionality profiles, they do possess unique characteristics not commonly observed in the general population. These include a lean body composition (Phantom z-scores for skinfolds range from -1.5 to -2.5 for most sites) with proportionally large upper body girths (z-scores> +1.0 for arm and chest girths), and narrow hips (for males). The morphology of elite paddlers appears to have altered during the past 25 years toward a more compact, robust physique. This trend is especially noticeable for the female competitors.

Almeras D : Espace aquatique et imaginaire social. Thèse Anthropologie sociale et culturelle, Univ. Paris V, 1985

American Canoe Association : releases report 1996-2000. Camping Magazine, July-August, 2003.

The American Canoe Association has just released a major risk management report, Critical Judgment -- Understanding and Preventing Canoe and Kayak Fatalities, focusing on paddle sports. Using accident data from 1996 -- 2000, the findings identify priority problem areas and targets that offer the greatest opportunity to significantly reduce canoe and kayak fatalities:
* Of all fatalities examined in this report, 75 percent were associated with canoeing.
* Approximately 83 percent of all canoeing related fatality victims were not wearing a PFD at the time of the accident.
* Occupant movement and weight shift within a canoe played a major role in roughly 50 percent of all canoeing accidents.
* Approximately 50 percent of victims in canoe- and kayak-related fatalities were fishing at the time of the accident.
* Approximately 40 percent of canoeing fatalities were in aluminum canoes at the time of the accident.
* At least 25 percent of victims in fatal canoeing accidents are believed to have consumed alcohol immediately prior to the accident. This was not an issue with kayaking fatalities.
The full thirty-two page report is available as a PDF document at For information about American Camping Association standards and how they relate to the important results of this study, see an upcoming article in the Fall 2003 issue of The CampLine.

Bailey I. : An analysis of sea kayaking incidents in New Zealand 1992-2005. Wilderness Environ Med. 2010 Sep;21(3):208-18. Epub 2010 Feb 2.
The Travel Doctor-Tauranga, CentralMed, Tauranga, New Zealand.


Objectives: The objective of this study was to investigate trends, medical problems, and contributory factors that occurred in 50 sea kayaking incidents in New Zealand between October 1992 and September 2005. There are currently very limited validated data available worldwide about the epidemiology of sea kayaking incidents. The research will raise awareness of how these events happened and their potential for serious harm. It will assist kayakers to manage their sport safely.
Methods: This was a retrospective epidemiological study of incident reports originally collected by Paul Caffyn for the Kiwi Association of Sea Kayakers (KASK). Variables investigated in this study were geographic location, month, year, participant demographics, incident severity, type of kayak and trip, environmental conditions, safety gear carried, medical problems, cause of deaths, and contributory factors. Tables and graphs were developed to analyze the results.
Results: Incidents occurred around New Zealand throughout the year, often in rough seas in offshore winds. More people were involved in September. Fifty-six percent of incidents involved groups; 20% were overseas tourists and 72% were recreational private trips. Eighty-five percent of participants were male, mostly aged 24 to 39 years old, and 48% had little or no experience. The severity of incidents increased with time. Severity was lower for women. Severity was higher in calm conditions and light winds, when the capsized kayaker became separated from the kayak, and when a personal flotation device (PFD) was not worn. Fishing incidents had a higher severity and involved inexperienced kayakers. Human factors contributed to most if not all incidents and occurred more frequently than physical events. Where medical problems were reported, hypothermia and sprains were common. Collision with a powered vessel was often fatal. The study was limited because it was based on relatively small numbers, was unlikely to capture all incidents in New Zealand, and denominator data were unknown.
Conclusions: All incidents were complex events with many variables interacting in different ways and all had the potential to be serious and life-threatening. Human actions were more important than physical events and young men were most often involved. Staying with the kayak after capsizing and wearing a PFD may have reduced the severity of an incident.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) : Paddle sports fatalities--Maine, 2000-2007. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2008 May 16;57(19):524-7.
In 2006, approximately 70 million persons in the United States participated in recreational boating, and paddle sports vessels (i.e., canoes, kayaks, and inflatable rafts) made up the fastest-growing segment of the boating market. From 2005 to 2006, canoe sales in the United States increased by 23%, and kayak sales increased by 11%, while powerboat sales decreased by 5%. To analyze the trends and characteristics of deaths associated with paddle sports, the Maine Department of Health and Human Services examined data on fatalities that occurred during 2000-2007. The results of this analysis determined that paddle sports deaths were associated with inexperience, alcohol use, and not using a personal flotation device (PFD). To reduce the risk for paddle sports fatalities, boating organizations and water-sport enforcement agencies should encourage boater safety education, use of PFDs, and avoidance of alcohol before and during boating.

Deluzurieux M : suivi médical d'un club de canoë-kayak ; étude des capacités physiques, pathologie, prévention. Thèse doct. médecine, Marseille, 1984.

Dubois F. : Approche de la pathologie rencontrée lors de la pratique du canoë-kayak. Thèse doct. médecine, Univ. Caen, 1987

Heluwaert A : une approche médicale du canoë-kayak. Act Sport Med 1994 dec; 37: 11-15
Exposé des particularités de l'examen de non-contre-indication, du suivi médico-sportif des compétiteurs,de la pathologie traumatique observée et des risques liés au milieu (noyade, leptospirose etc.).

Kameyama O, Shibano K, Kawakita H, Ogawa R, Kumamoto M : Medical check of competitive canoeists. J Orthop Sci. 1999;4(4):243-9.
Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Kansai Medical University, Osaka 570-8507, Japan.
We gave a sports injury questionnaire survey to 821 active canoeists, members of the Japan Canoe Association (JCA), and performed a medical check of 63 top competitive JCA canoeists, including physical and laboratory tests and radiographic examinations of the chest, spine, shoulder, elbow, and wrist joints. Completed questionnaires were returned by 417 canoeists, whose reported racing styles were: kayak, 324; Canadian canoe, 71; slalom, 13; and not specified, 9. Of the 417 respondents, 94 canoeists (22. 5%) reported that they experienced lumbago; 20.9% experienced shoulder pain; 3.8%, elbow pain; and 10.8%, wrist pain. On medical examinations, lumbago was found to be mainly of myofascial origin or due to spondylolysis. Impingement syndrome was also observed in 4 canoeists with shoulder problems. The competitive canoeists had low blood pressure, and some had bradycardia. On laboratory examinations, serum hemoglobulin, hematocrit, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-CHO), creatine phosphokinase (CK), and creatine (CRTN) in the top competitive canoeists showed high values in comparison with those of an age-matched control group. However, low serum total cholesterol (TP) values were observed in the top competitive canoeists.

Marsac A : En kayak de haute rivière : pratiques individuelles et engagements partagés. Sports à risques ? corps du risque. Ethnologie françaies; PUF 2006-4
Résumé : cet article étudie l'organisation d'une équipe de kayakistes, en mettant l'accent sur le caractère socialement construit des prises de risque induites par la navigation sur un torrent tel que l'Ubaye. La question de l'engagement se pose avec d'autant plus d'acuité qu'elle met en jeu l'intégrité physique des sportifs. Or, du fait de l'enclavement du site, ceux-ci évoluent en relative autonomie. Il s'agit dès lors de repérer les étapes qui permettent d'envisager le kayak de haute rivière comme une activité relevant d'une organisation collective singulière. La description des règles, de sécurité notamment, qui régissent les relations sociales au sein de cette collectivité met en lumière les fondements de l'activité elle-même. En révélant que les manières  d'accepter le caractère risqué de la pratique s'inscrivent dans un cadre social, de sorte que la descente en kayak relève davantage d'une expérience partagée entre sportifs que de la mise en scène de conduites individuelles, l'ethnographie des descendeurs de rivière fournit des outils pour appréhender l'engagement dans un sport à risques.

Powell C : Injuries and medical conditions among kayakers paddling in the sea environment.Wilderness Environ Med. 2009 Winter;20(4):327-34.
Cardiff School of Health Sciences, University of Wales Institute, Cardiff, UK.
Objective: Directly experienced health impacts and the perception of health impacts affecting the wider community kayaking in the sea environment were assessed.
Methods: Four hundred questionnaires were distributed at coastal launch sites in West Wales. One hundred and seventy-eight questionnaires were returned.
Results: The majority of respondents had not received injuries or developed medical conditions as a result of kayaking in the sea. Among those who had directly encountered health impacts, problems with joints, tendons, and muscles were the most frequently reported injury. When asked what were the most common health impacts in general among those who kayak in the sea, 'sprains and pulled muscles' and 'cuts and abrasions' were the most frequently cited factors. The rank order of the 'most common injury or medical condition' and the 'most commonly injured part of the body' varied according to type of boat used and activity undertaken. This variation was evident in relation to direct experience of health impacts and the perception of injuries and medical conditions affecting other kayakers. Most respondents regarded injuries and medical conditions as uncommon and not serious and reported positive health effects from kayaking.
Conclusions: Health impacts encountered by those kayaking in the sea reflect many of those identified in literature focusing upon other aspects of kayaking. Responses to questions regarding the most common injury or medical condition and the most common injury site vary according to type of boat used and activity undertaken. It is concluded that while there may be common demands placed upon paddlers using a variety of boats and participating in differing activities, it cannot be assumed that they are a homogeneous group. This has implications for the development of incident prevention strategies.

Sesboüé B.: Manifestations sportives : Les responsabilités du médecin sont bien définies. Panorama médecin 6 septembre 1994, N° 4059.
* CHU Côte-de-Nacre, Caen.
Tout au long de l'année se déroulent nombre de réunions sportives. L'hiver n'est plus une période réelle de trêve, même si, avec l'arrivée du printemps, la fréquentation des stades et autres lieux de sports devient de plus en plus élevée. Lors de ces compétitions, sont réunis dans un seul lieu spectateurs et sportifs qui, selon les souhaits des organisateurs, sont de plus en plus nombreux : le marathon de New York réunit plusieurs dizaines de milliers de participants ; la finale de la coupe de France de football a lieu devant 100 000 spectateurs. Or, l'activité sportive est une activité à risque tant pour le spectateur que pour le pratiquant : pour celui-là, outre la charge émotionnelle, existent les risques liés aux engins manipulés par les sportifs et ceux liés à la foule. Sans oublier Furiani, où l'accident était dû à un défaut de l'infrastructure. Les scènes du Heysel, largement diffusées sur les écrans, sont encore présentes dans nos mémoires et illustrent bien le danger lié aux grandes affluences. Le risque encouru par le sportif est manifeste : 1 500 à 2 000 morts par an en France (selon les estimations) pendant les pratiques sportives, auxquelles s'ajoutent les très nombreuses blessures responsables d'arrêts de travail et d'invalidités. Il est donc bien évident qu'organiser une manifestation engage de nombreuses responsabilités et qu'une médicalisation adaptée sera nécessaire.
Les grands événements sont, en général, très bien - voire trop bien - médicalisés: des moyens très lourds sont mis en jeu par les services d'aide médicale urgente a qui les organisateurs donnent alors les moyens financiers en rapport. Dans nos villages ou nos quartiers, les clubs n'ont pas de tels moyens et, trop souvent, la médicalisation sera traitée à la légère : par entente tacite, voire supposée par l'habitude, le nom du Dr Copain, membre du club, ami ou parent d'un sportif ou d'un dirigeant, sera reporté sur les formulaires administratifs. De telles pratiques sont mauvaises. L'examen des textes législatifs et réglementaires, puis celui du cahier des charges des fédérations montrera comment organiser de façon cohérente la médicalisation des sportifs et celle des spectateurs.

Shephard RJ : Science and medicine of canoeing and kayaking. Sports Med 1987 Jan;4(1):19-33
Canoeing and kayaking are upper-body sports that make varying demands on thebody, depending on the type of contest and the distance covered. The shorterevents (500 m) are primarily anaerobic (2 minutes of exercise), calling forpowerful shoulder muscles with a high proportion of fast-twitch fibres. Incontrast, 10,000 m events call for aerobic work to be performed by the arms.Such contestants need a high proportion of slow-twitch fibres, and an abilityto develop close to 100% of their leg maximum oxygen intake when paddling. Inslalom and whitewater contests, the value of physiological testing is somewhatlimited, since performance is strongly influenced by experience and the abilityto make precisely judged rapid paddling efforts under considerable emotionalstress. Paddlers face dangers from their hostile cold water environment; causesof fatalities (drowning, cardiac arrest, ventricular fibrillation andhypothermia) are briefly reviewed. Medical problems include provision ofadequate nutrition and a clean water supply, effects of repeated immersion(softening of the skin, blistering, paronychial infections, sinusitis, otitis),varicose veins (secondary to thoracic fixation) and hazards of exposure tofibreglass and polystyrene in the home workshop. Surgical problems includemuscle sprains and mechanical injuries (haemotomas, lacerations, contusions,concussion, and fractures).
Publication Types: Review
MEDLINE - PMID: 3547536, UI: 87148539